ITALY

Ordine dei Santi Maurizio e Lazzaro. Born from the union of two ancient and different Orders which, for particular reasons, only in the XVI Century were combined under the Mastery of the House of Savoy. The Order of St. Maurice and Lazarus was awarded with some frequency among generals and colonels.

The Order of St. Maurice was established in 1434 by Amedeo VIII of Savoy (during his stay in the Ripaglia hermitage near Thonon) and so called after Maurice, the brave Captain of the Legio Tebea who was martyred in 286 a.d, altogether with his legionnaires for having refused to worship the Imperator Marco Aurelio. From its origins, the Order of St. Maurice was an "Ordine combattente" (Combating Order) intended to fight Lutherans and Calvinists. The origins of the Order of St. Lazarus can be, on the contrary, brought back to the foundation, around 1100, of an Hospital for Leprosy in Jerusalem by a group of crusaders who called themselves "Brothers of St. Lazarus" (Lazarus was the poor leprous beggar, described in the Bible by the Evangelist St. Luke (Luke, chapter 16, verses 19-31), who became patron saint of lepers). Under the Grand Mastery of Duke Emanuele Filiberto "Iron Head", the two orders were declared united by Pope Gregory XIII in 1572, one year after the battle of Lepanto, in order to fight the infidels; nevertheless, already during the XVI century the newborn order missed its military "raison d'etre", shifting instead towards the original hospital rule of St. Lazarus. Brought back in favour by King Vittorio Emanuele II, the Order was sparingly conferred for distinguished service in civilian or military affairs, as an exclusive award compared with the more common Order of the Crown of Italy. Because of the fall of monarchy, the Italian Government in 1952 changed the Order (which no longer was officially acknowledged as such) in "Ente Morale" (Non-profit Corporation) and kept in function its hospitals, churches, orphanages and schools which are now under the High Patronage of the President of the Republic. As for the House of Savoy, still owner for dynastic reasons of the Grand Mastery, the pretender to Italy's Throne (Prince Vittorio Emanuele IV) is still conferring from his exile knighthoods of this important Order which was never discontinued.

Harry Winthrop Courtenay BOWDOIN      Haileybury Thomason 1886.1 - 1890.2

Captain American Red Cross in Italy. Cross of St. Maurice & St Lazarus.

Colonel Frederick Hugh Gordon CUNLIFFE C.B., C.M.G. United Services College

Cavelier of the Order of St Maurice and Lazarus.

Brigadier General Arthur Frank Umfreville GREEN CMG DSO       Haileybury Thomason  1890.3 - 1894.3

 Officer of Italian Order of St. Maurice & St. Lazarus

Alfred Clifford LAWRENCE Haileybury Trevelyan 1890.3 - 1895.2

Officer of Order of St Maurice & St. Lazarus

Major General  Richard Deare Furley OLDMAN  CMG CB DSO       Haileybury  Hailey 1890.3 -1893.2

Officer Order of St Maurice & St. Lazarus

Brigadier General Raymond Theodore PELLY CB CMG DSO & Bar    Haileybury Trevelyan 1895.2 - 1898.2

Commander Italian Order of St Maurice & St. Lazarus

Major Wilfred Harry PRYCE OBE     Haileybury Lawrence 1903.1 - 1905.3

Served in Italy 1917 - 1918 Cavalier Order  of St Maurice & St. Lazarus

Right Honourable James Rennell RODD GCB GCMG GCVO PC     Haileybury Colvin 1871.2 - 1876.2

Grand Cross of St. Maurice & St.  Lazarus

General  Sir Alexander Ernest WARDROP Haileybury Highfield 1886.1 - 1888.2

Commander Italian Order of St Maurice & St. Lazarus

The Order of the Crown of Italy (Ordine della Corona d'Italia) was an Order (decoration) conferred by the Kingdom of Italy. Established by King Victor Emmanuel II on 20 February 1868 to commemorate the Italian unification, the Order was awarded for civilian and military merit. Compared with the older Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus, the Order of the Crown of Italy was awarded more liberally, and could be conferred to non-Catholics as well; eventually it became a requirement for a person to have already received the Order of the Crown of Italy before receiving the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus. After Italy became a republic in 1946 the Order was effectively replaced by the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic; the House of Savoy in exile continued to confer the Order for many years, although it is no longer conferred following the death of King Umberto II on 18 March 1983. It was replaced by the Order of Civil Merit of Savoy (Ordine del Merito civile di Savoia). 

Captain John Guy Giberne BIRKETT Haileybury Colvin 1898.3 - 1903.2

Cavalier of the Order of Crown of Italy, serving in Italy with the Royal Garrison Artillery.

Brigadier General Ernest Sumner BURDER CMG JP    Haileybury Lawrence 1878.2 - 1883.3

Officer of the Order of Crown of Italy

Major General Sir Charles Edward CALLWELL KCB Haileybury Lawrence 1871 - 1876.2

Commander of the Order of the Crown of Italy

Captain (Acting Major) H.T Clare Haileybury Melville 1910.3-1913.3

Cavalier of the Order of Crown of Italy

Killed in Action 29. April 1918

Captain Robert Brinsley FITZGERALD MC        Haileybury Thomason 1897.1 - 1900.3

Cavalier of the Order of the Crown of Italy,

Captain General List Intelligence. .

Major Philip Percival GRAVES  Haileybury Le Bas 1889.2 - 1895.2

Order of Crown of Italy

Sir Thomas Wentworth RUSSELL KBE CMG Haileybury Le Bas 1893.3 - 1899.2

Order of Crown of Italy

Bt-Colonel S.H SHEPPARD C.M.G., D.S.O.

Officer of the Order of the Crown of Italy

Major General Cyril Moseley WAGSTAFF CB CMG CIE DSO       United Services College  1887.1 - 1888.1

Order of Crown of Italy

Sir Edmund WYLDBORE - -SMITH    Haileybury Le Bas 1891.1 - 1894.3

Grand Officer of the Order of th Crown of Italy

Ordine Militare di Savoia (Military Order of Savoia) - Established by King Victor Emmanuel I of Sardinia in 1815 . Awarded for especially distinguished service in war. 5 classes-- worn in the usual styles -- Grand Cross, Grand Officer, Commander, Officer, Knight. The first three classes had the royal crown above the cross. The Officer class had the cross suspened from a 'trophy' of flags. The lowest class, the Knight, suspended the cross from a simple ring. The Knight class could be awarded to soldiers and sailors. The ribbon had three equal stripes of navy/red/navy. With the fall of the monarchy, this Order was retained, but renamed the 'Order of Military Merit of Italy."

Field Marshal Vicount Allenby G.C.B., G.C.M.G

Grand Officer of the Military Order of Savoy

Colonel Alfred Danvers BAYLIFFE CMG TD  Haileybury Le Bas 1887.1 - 1891.3

Cavalier of the Military Order of Savoy

Brig-General J.G ROTTON., C.B., C.M.G. Haileybury

Officer of the Military Order of Savoy

Medaglia Al Valore Militare (Military Medal for Valour) Awarded to the military for exceptional valour which did not warrant the award of the Military Order of Savoia. This medal was instituted in March 1833 by King Albert of Sardinia in three classes : gold, silver and bronze and was meant for award to army and navy personnel. - In 1836 and 1927 similar medals were created for resp. navy and air force. When awarded, the recipient's name was written on the reverse of the medal. During World War I the words "GUERRA DI 1915-1918" (War of 1915-1918) were written above the recipient's name. - The medal's obverse has changed a number of times : the WWI obverse bears the royal weapon of Savoia under a crown. During WWII, the "Italian Socialist Republic" the arms and crown were replaced by a Roman short sword, point upwards, on a background of laurel and oak leaves. After WWII, these were replaced by a five pointed star within a cogweel and "REPUBLICA ITALIANA" at the lower rim.

Captain Maurice STRODE, M.C. Haileybury Bartle Frere 1898.2-1902.2

Silver Medal for Valour

 Captain Clive Oliver Bertram BEALE DSO    Haileybury Le Bas 1912.2 - 1916.2

Bronze Medal for Valour

Captain Norman Samuel FLINT MC Haileybury Colvin 1908.2 - 1912.2

Italian Bronze Medal for Valour

The Croce di Guerra was awarded "for war merit in land, sea, or air operations, after at least a year's service in the trenches or elsewhere in contact with the enemy; [to] those who were wounded in action and who had earned the award of the Medal for Wounded, those who had performed acts of bravery but not warranting the award of the Al Valore Militare (Medal for Military Valor), and for those who had received promotion for a mention for war merit."

Leiutenant Colonel Ranald Victor DAVIDSON Haileybury Trevelyan 1911.1-1915.3

Italian Croce di Guerra

Lieutenant S.K.F.P HUMPHREY

Italian Croce di Guerra

Brigadier General Arthur Frank Umfreville GREEN CMG DSO       Haileybury Thomason  1890.3 - 1894.3

 Italian Croce di Guerra. 

Captain Basil Graham Homfray KEYMER DFC & Bar RAF                        Haileybury Batten 1913.1 - 1916.1

 Italian Croce di Guerra. 

Colonel Osbert Cautley MORDAUNT DSO       United Services College  1885.3 - 1886.1

Italian Croce di Guerra.

Brigadier General Raymond Theodore PELLY CB CMG DSO & Bar    Haileybury Trevelyan 1895.2 - 1898.2

Italian Croce di Guerra.

Major Sidney Ernest SANDLE M.C., D.C.M., T.D. Haileybury Edmonstone 1905.3-1909.1

Italian Croce di Guerra

Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Winter SHEPPARD - GRAHAM JP DL Haileybury Highfield 1886.2 - 1889.2

Italian Croce de Guerra

Colonel Harold Smurthwaite Kemplay SNOWDON DSO                   Haileybury, Melville &  Lawrence  1893.1 - 1894.3

 Italian Croce di Guerra.

General  Sir Alexander Ernest WARDROP C.B., C.M.G.Haileybury Highfield 1886.1 - 1888.2

 Italian Croce di Guerra.

Volontari della LlibertÓ

There's no medal for this award which was instituted on 3 May 1945. The badge consists of a ribbon with the gilt letters VL (Volontari della LibertÓ) superimposed on the ribbon or woven into it). The badge was awarded to partisans who had served for a minimum of three months in a unit recognized by the National Liberation Committee

Major Neville Laurence DAREWSKI  DSO, RAOC Haileybury Batten 1928.2 - 1932.2 ITALY

Service number121894, Royal Army Ordnance Corps who died age 31 on 15 November 1944.Son of Herman and Madge Temple Darewski. Remembered with honour STAGLIENO CEMETERY, GENOA. Commanded a  British detachment organizing  Partisans near Genoa.

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